Nakamura et al. (2012) Space environment of an asteroid preserved on micrograins returned by the Hayabusa spacecraft, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, E624-E629, doi:10.1073/pnas.1116236109. < 20120224095412-627-620 > pub

Map on Earth or stone. Places and analyses are shown.

  • abstract:

    Records of micrometeorite collisions at down to submicron scales were discovered on dust grains recovered from near-Earth asteroid 25143 (Itokawa). Because the grains were sampled from very near the surface of the asteroid, by the Hayabusa spacecraft, their surfaces reflect the low-gravity space environment influencing the physical nature of the asteroid exterior. The space environment was examined by description of grain surfaces and asteroidal scenes were reconstructed. Chemical and O isotope compositions of five lithic grains, with diameters near 50 µm, indicate that the uppermost layer of the rubble-pile-textured Itokawa is largely composed of equilibrated LL-ordinary-chondrite-like material with superimposed effects of collisions. The surfaces of the grains are dominated by fractures, and the fracture planes contain not only sub-µm-sized craters but also a large number of sub-µm- to several-µm-sized adhered particles, some of the latter composed of glass. The size distribution and chemical compositions of the adhered particles, together with the occurrences of the sub-µm-sized craters, suggest formation by hypervelocity collisions of micrometeorites at down to nm scales, a process expected in the physically hostile environment at an asteroid's surface. We describe impact-related phenomena, ranging in scale from 10-9 to 104 meters, demonstrating the central role played by impact processes in the long-term evolution of planetary bodies. Impact appears to be an important process shaping the exteriors of not only large planetary bodies, such as the moon, but also low-gravity bodies such as asteroids.

  • doi: 10.1073/pnas.1116236109
  • modified at 3 h ago
1: en-ol-E003b 2: ol-93-b2 3: ol-93-b2(Ol0.8Pl0.2@720) 4: ol-93-b2(Ol0.8Pl0.2@721) 5: ol-93-b2(Ol0.6Pl0.4@723) 6: en-px-K002-b 7: en-px-K002-b (Di@756) 8: en-px-K002-b (Pl@765) 9: en-px-E002-b 10: en-px-E002-b(Px@783)


(a) SIMS on SIMS Cameca ims-1270
1: ref-gl-tahiti 2: ref-gl-hawaii 3: ref-gl-dr1a1 4: ref-gl-pjr1 5: myk1-1 6: myk1-2 7: myk1-5 8: gl-NIST-610 9: ref-gl-ab1 10: ref-ap-durango 11: ref-cpx-klb1 12: cpx-sag30 13: ref-cpx-sax39c 14: opx-KLB1 15: ol-fa-hk-1 16: ol-MW-sc5 17: ref-ol-sc1 18: ref-ol-fo1 19: ref-ol-fk1 20: ref-grt-HK5206701d 21: ref-grt-mnag10


(a) EPMA on EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R
(b) mass spectrometry with dual inlet on SIRA Thermo-Fisher MAT253
1: en-ol-E003b(major@Ol 2: en-ol-E003b(major@en) 3: ol-93-b2(major@Ol) 4: ol-93-b2(major@pl) 5: en-px-K002-b (major@Di) 6: en-px-K002-b (major@pl) 7: en-px-K002-b (major@kfs) 8: en-px-E002-b(major@Px


(a) EPMA on EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R
(b) SEM-EDS on JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS
1: en-ol-E003b(trace@Ol0.5-Px0.5) 2: ol-93-b2(traceOl@2) 3: ol-93-b2(traceOl0.9Pl0.1@3) 4: ol-93-b2(tracePl@4) 5: ol-93-b2(tracePl0.3Ol0.7@5) 6: ol-93-b2(tracePl0.6Ol0.4@6) 7: en-px-K002-b(traceDi@7) 8: en-px-K002-b(traceDi@8) 9: en-px-K002-b(tracePl@9) 10: en-px-K002-b(tracePl0.95Di0.05@10) 11: en-px-E002-b(tracePx@11) 12: en-px-E002-b(tracePx@12) 13: en-px-E002-b(tracePx@13)


(a) EPMA on EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R
(b) SIMS on SIMS Cameca ims-5f
1: E004-24-8 2: E004-24-9 3: E004-22-5 4: E004-22-6 5: E004-23-7 6: E004-pos45deg50T-2 7: E004-pos0deg0t-1-2 8: E004-AG-1-1


(a) SEM-EDS on JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS
Pom 0020 thumb RA-QD02-0093 < 20110416134901-075-241 >pub
  • classification: chondrite:ordinary
  • physical-form: grain
  • status: (unknown)
  • modified at 2016-02-20
Pom 0026 thumb RA-QD02-0095 < 20110416134955-320-347 >pub
  • classification: chondrite:ordinary
  • physical-form: grain
  • status: (unknown)
  • modified at 2016-02-20
Xx 121 e003 004 thumb RA-QD02-0121 < 20110502190426-620-791 >pub
  • classification: chondrite:ordinary
  • physical-form: grain
  • status: (unknown)
  • modified at 2016-02-20
Xx 118 e002 007 thumb RA-QD02-0118 < 20110502190415-958-990 >pub
  • classification: chondrite:ordinary
  • physical-form: grain
  • status: (unknown)
  • modified at 2016-02-20
Xx 116 e004 007 thumb RA-QD02-0116 < 20110502190443-012-746 >pub
  • classification: chondrite:ordinary
  • physical-form: grain
  • status: (unknown)
  • modified at 2018-12-20
Ol 121 e003 b 002 thumb en-ol-E003b < 20110518194205-602-801 >pub
  • classification: mineral
  • physical-form: fraction
  • status: (unknown)
  • modified at 2020-06-09
Ref gl ab thumb ref-gl-ab1 < 20110518194323-577-749 >pub
  • classification: glass
  • physical-form: grain
  • status: (unknown)
  • modified at 2020-06-09
Ref ol fk1 thumb ref-ol-fk1 < 20110518194217-336-786 >pub
  • classification: mineral:olivine
  • physical-form: fraction
  • status: (unknown)
  • modified at 2020-06-09
Ref cpx klb1 thumb ref-cpx-klb1 < 20110518194229-899-182 >pub
  • classification: mineral:pyroxene
  • physical-form: on mount
  • status: (unknown)
  • modified at 2020-06-09
Ref ol fo1 thumb ref-ol-fo1 < 20110518194221-681-398 >pub
  • classification: mineral:olivine
  • physical-form: fraction
  • status: (unknown)
  • modified at 2020-06-09
Ref ol sc1 thumb ref-ol-sc1 < 20110518194211-103-187 >pub
  • classification: mineral:olivine
  • physical-form: fraction
  • status: (unknown)
  • modified at 2020-06-09
Tk ol 93b2 thumb ol-93-b2 < 20110504162624-381-204 >pub
  • classification: mineral
  • physical-form: fraction
  • status: (unknown)
  • modified at 2020-06-09
Mount k002 b 45 thumb en-px-K002-b < 20110507160030-688-523 >pub
  • classification: mineral
  • physical-form: fraction
  • status: (unknown)
  • modified at 2020-06-09
Gl dr1a1 thumb ref-gl-dr1a1 < 20090223093036.hkitagawa >pub
  • classification: synthetic:glass
  • physical-form: on mount
  • status: (unknown)
  • description: This stone is glass re-molten to homogenize chemical compositions.
  • modified at 2020-06-09
Ol mw sc5 reflect thumb ol-MW-sc5 < 20080404232348.mw >pub
  • classification: mineral:olivine
  • physical-form: on mount
  • status: (unknown)
  • description: Previous label was `SC D'. \abundance[\ppm]{Li} = 2.5 (Maruyama et al, 2009)
  • modified at 2020-06-09
Ref gl tahiti thumb ref-gl-tahiti < 20110407093831-292-272 >pub
  • classification: glass
  • physical-form: on mount
  • status: (unknown)
  • description: On half-inch resin disk, which is on SIMS(5f) holder as a working standard
  • modified at 2020-06-09
Img 0988 thumb ref-grt-HK5206701d < 20100514093423660.tota >pub
  • classification: mineral:garnet
  • physical-form: on mount
  • status: (unknown)
  • modified at 2020-06-09
Ap durango opt thumb ref-ap-durango < 20130628144453-349172 >pub
  • physical-form: on mount
  • status: (unknown)
  • modified at 2020-06-09
Ref grt mnag10 thumb ref-grt-mnag10 < 20131011173339-925539 >pub
  • classification: mineral:garnet
  • physical-form: on mount
  • status: (unknown)
  • modified at 2020-06-09
Img 2353 thumb myk1-1 < 20101021094558025.hkitagawa >pub
  • physical-form: on mount
  • status: (unknown)
  • modified at 2020-06-16
Img 2354 thumb myk1-2 < 20101021094557357.hkitagawa >pub
  • physical-form: on mount
  • status: (unknown)
  • modified at 2020-06-16
Img 2357 thumb myk1-5 < 20101021094557533.hkitagawa >pub
  • physical-form: on mount
  • status: (unknown)
  • modified at 2020-06-16
Vhx 000008 thumb ol-fa-hk-1 < 20110401173434-288-226 >pub
  • physical-form: on mount
  • status: (unknown)
  • modified at 2020-06-09
En px e002 b thumb en-px-E002-b < 20110514185257-135-219 >pub
  • classification: mineral
  • physical-form: fraction
  • status: (unknown)
  • modified at 2020-06-09
Optical thumb cpx-sag30 < 20090313101750331.hkitagawa >pub
  • classification: mineral:pyroxene
  • physical-form: on mount
  • status: (unknown)
  • description: Clinopyroxenes are picked from xenolith (Malalite, Solomon) and mounted by A. Ishikawa.
  • modified at 2020-06-09
Gl hawaii thumb ref-gl-hawaii < 20090223093028.hkitagawa >pub
  • classification: glass
  • physical-form: on mount
  • status: (unknown)
  • description: \abundance[cg/g]{SiO_2} = 51.22, \abundance[cg/g]{MgO} = 8.1, \abundance[\ppm]{Li} = 4.41 (as "HW11-3"; Green Binder et al., 2009)
  • modified at 2020-06-09
Img 8271@7a5d30d9533198434133324 thumb gl-NIST-610 < 20090318093433148.hkitagawa >pub
  • classification: synthetic:glass
  • physical-form: grain
  • status: (unknown)
  • modified at 2020-06-09
Ref cpx sax39 thumb ref-cpx-sax39c < 20130628150759-626481 >pub
  • classification: mineral:pyroxene
  • physical-form: on mount
  • status: (unknown)
  • modified at 2020-06-09
Gl pjr1 thumb ref-gl-pjr1 < 20120228145231-547-537 >pub
  • classification: glass
  • physical-form: on mount
  • status: (unknown)
  • modified at 2020-07-02
Img 3551 thumb opx-KLB1 < 20110415092805-368-694 >pub
  • classification: mineral:pyroxene
  • physical-form: on mount
  • status: (unknown)
  • description: Formally known as 'KLB-1 Opx'.
  • modified at 2020-06-09
name box-type global-id
binder of Space environment of an asteroid preserved on micrograins returned by the Hayabusa spacecraft by Nakamura et al., 2012 pub container 20181218102728-176918
name coordinate global-id
755 pub (6.91, 17.87) 20120224170037-167-576
10 pub (12.97, 28.48) 20120224170419-427-622
9 pub (20.18, 32.52) 20120224170343-608-908
8 pub (4.84, 21.16) 20120224170312-470-199
756 pub (-4.09, 27.33) 20120224170110-609-443
765 pub (20.05, 35.58) 20120224170145-076-332
7 pub (-5.89, 24.62) 20120224170234-393-316
name coordinate global-id
802 pub (0.12, 13.12) 20120222195434-286-367
1 pub (-0.81, 12.09) 20120222195226-421-017
name coordinate global-id
782 pub (8.59, 32.31) 20120224171957-669-611
783 pub (-3.21, 21.00) 20120224172026-053-377
13 pub (-2.47, 17.46) 20120224172138-212-376
12 pub (-1.30, 29.77) 20120224172116-623-288
11 pub (10.47, 35.61) 20120224172052-995-787
name coordinate global-id
720 pub (10.66, 37.93) 20120223194311-653-163
721 pub (9.92, 20.01) 20120223193931-048-650
723 pub (-0.10, 23.42) 20120223194050-662-192
2 pub (9.27, 32.64) 20120224162122-595-904
3 pub (-0.67, 28.35) 20120224162233-253-084
694 pub (3.44, 31.60) 20120224162007-252-238
6 pub (18.74, 27.27) 20120224162519-744-911
5 pub (15.25, 41.62) 20120224162410-450-591
4 pub (16.59, 36.08) 20120224162313-125-109
name device size global-id
in-situ O isotope for Ol0.5 low-Ca Px0.5 pub SIMS Cameca ims-1270 3 20120222194521-900-286
in-situ O isotope for Ol0.95Pl0.05@694 pub SIMS Cameca ims-1270 3 20120223193244-229-984
in-situ O isotope for Di@755 pub SIMS Cameca ims-1270 3 20110520073816-799-968
recommended pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 8 20110613192109-655-196
ref_gl_dr1a1 pub 36 20110615111915-339-687
MYK1-1 pub 12 20150518154615-539156
recommended pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 9 20110613191326-202-203
recommended pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 4 20110613185621-472-216
recommended pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 3 20110512123959-639-395
recommended Oxygen pub SIRA Thermo-Fisher MAT253 2 20181225152250-294105
in-situ O isotope for low-Ca Px@782 pub SIMS Cameca ims-1270 3 20110524102434-601-562
MYK1-2 pub 12 20150518154620-379580
recommended pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 9 20110613191542-621-324
ref-cpx-sag30 pub 36 20170302123831-952084
recommended pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 9 20110613192614-927-476
recommended pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 6 20110613185827-748-007
ref_gl_tahiti pub 36 20110615111919-540-763
ref-gl-hawaii pub 36 20170302123951-269762
recommended pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 8 20110613192303-465-441
MYK1-5 pub 11 20150518154632-477314
recommended pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 8 20110613191722-923-959
ref_grt_hk5206701d pub 7 20110615111920-262-240
ref-grt-HK5206701d pub 27 20170302124150-575797
recommended pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 6 20110613190553-076-244
recommended pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 4 20110613191026-753-748
ref_gl_nist610 pub 6 20110615111918-029-443
recommended pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 5 20110613192759-599-020
ref-cpx-sax39c pub 40 20170302123857-082875
recommended pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 9 20110613191919-113-030
XCa pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8530F 1 20190527141542-189630
dLi pub ICPMS Thermo-Fisher Neptune 2 20190527141519-913716
XMg pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8530F 1 20190527141530-369748
ref-grt-MNAG10 pub 36 20170302124204-099320
ol-fukang1 O pub SIRA Thermo-Fisher MAT253 2 20181226154111-671503
ol-fukang1 pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 4 20181226153923-518234
recommended pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 9 20110613192432-696-698
ref_cpx_klb1_O pub SIRA Thermo-Fisher MAT253 2 20181226103155-932696
ref_cpx_klb1 pub 33 20110615111911-316-852
recommended pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 3 20181225103518-554718
recommended Oxygen pub SIRA Thermo-Fisher MAT253 2 20181225103716-452965
recommended Oxygen pub SIRA Thermo-Fisher MAT253 2 20181225103054-197751
recommended pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 5 20181225102826-333615
recommended pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 7 20110613191145-833-467
recommended pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 10 20110430144125-274-231
opx-klb1 O pub SIRA Thermo-Fisher MAT253 2 20181226150306-813544
in-situ O isotope for Ol0.8Pl0.2@720 pub SIMS Cameca ims-1270 3 20120223193413-873-104
in-situ O isotope for low-Ca Px@783 pub SIMS Cameca ims-1270 3 20110524103255-303-452
in-situ O isotope for Ol0.8Pl0.2@721 pub SIMS Cameca ims-1270 3 20120223193537-455-422
in-situ major for low-Ca Px (grain A) pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 8 20181219093741-080896
in-situ major for Pl (grain B) pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 9 20120223181117-211-514
in-situ major for diaplectic plagioclase (grain C) pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20120223183145-756-686
in-situ major for Kfs (grain C) pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20181219101611-877512
in-situ O isotope for Ol0.6Pl0.4@723 pub SIMS Cameca ims-1270 3 20120223193712-447-283
in-situ O isotope for Di@756 pub SIMS Cameca ims-1270 3 20110520073916-637-498
in-situ O isotope for diaplectic plagioclase@765 pub SIMS Cameca ims-1270 3 20110520074012-809-874
in-situ trace for Ol0.5 low-Ca Px0.5 pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 14 20120222192429-444-319
in-situ major for Ol (grain A) pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 5 20181219093228-229439
in-situ SiO2 pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 1 20181219121517-863630
In-situ trace for Ol0.9Pl0.1@3 pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 5 20120224161128-881-454
In-situ trace for Ol@2 pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 14 20120224161128-468-643
In-situ trace for Pl@4 pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 12 20120224161128-138-577
In-situ trace for Pl0.3Ol0.7@5 pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 6 20120224161128-313-215
in-situ major for Ol (grain B) pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 5 20181219143354-970504
in-situ SiO2@3 pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 1 20181219140058-578587
in-situ trace for Pl0.6Ol0.4@6 pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 6 20181219145943-625527
in-situ SiO2@6 pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 1 20181219150001-281976
in-situ SiO2@5 pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 1 20181219145428-800838
in-situ SiO2@2 pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 1 20181219140937-240830
in-situ SiO2@4 pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 1 20181219144917-729637
In-situ trace for Di@7 pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 15 20120224165505-011-632
In-situ trace for Di@8 pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 29 20120224165505-288-138
In-situ trace for diaplectic Pl@9 pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 26 20120224165505-185-048
In-situ trace for Pl0.95Di0.05@10 pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 3 20120224165506-316-241
in-situ major for Di (grain C) pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 10 20110524114438-320-176
in-situ SiO2@7 pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 1 20181219150923-932038
in-situ SiO2@9 pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 1 20181219152002-780910
in-situ SiO2@8 pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 1 20181219151457-242642
in-situ SiO2@10 pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 1 20181219152044-573720
in-situ major for low-Ca Px (grain D) pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 9 20110524100614-070-354
In-situ trace for low-Ca Px@11 pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 13 20120224171743-453-301
In-situ trace for low-Ca Px@12 pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 2 20120224171743-270-386
In-situ trace for low-Ca Px@13 pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 3 20120224171743-978-832
in-situ SiO2@11 pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 1 20181219152658-240030
in-situ SiO2@13 pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 1 20181219152721-048069
in-situ SiO2@12 pub EPMA JEOL JXA-8800R 1 20181219152711-183903
E004-AG-1-1 pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 4 20181220105402-027316
E004-pos0deg0t-1-2 pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20181220105402-014515
E004-24-9 pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20181220105401-887549
E004-24-8 pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 6 20181220105401-636024
E004-pos45deg50T-2 pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 6 20181220105401-257806
E004-23-7 pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20181220105401-189154
E004-22-6 pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20181220105401-851783
E004-22-5 pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 4 20181220105401-686678
Li isotopic ratio pub ICPMS Thermo-Fisher Neptune 2 20130208180512-081-451
name spots global-id
F1.large thumb F1.large.jpg pub 0 20190108094115-434576
caption ID rowname stone
Table S3. Results of in-situ O isotope analyses pub 20181219110039-527168 oxygen (Itokawa Table S3) 10
Table S5. Geochemical properties of the reference glasses and minerals pub 20181225094629-405342 major-trace of ref (Itokawa TableS5) 21
Table S1.Major element compositions of the Itokawa grains pub 20181219094303-294307 major by EMPA (Itokawa Table S1) 8
Table S7. Chemical compositions of the Itokawa grains determined using the Cameca ims-5f ion microprobe pub 20181219120001-182930 major-trace by 5f (Itokawa TableS7) 13
Table S9. Major element compositions of the merrillite in the PIC pub 20181220105859-969128 major by FE-SEM-EDS (Itokawa Table S9) 8
manual
  • name
  • Nakamura, Eizo
  • Makishima, Akio
  • Moriguti, Takuya
  • Kobayashi, Katsura
  • Tanaka, Ryoji
  • Kunihiro, Tak
  • Tsujimori, Tatsuki
  • Sakaguchi, Chie
  • Kitagawa, Hiroshi
  • Ota, Tsutomu
  • Yachi, Yusuke
  • Yada, Toru
  • Abe, Masanao
  • Fujimura, Akio
  • Ueno, Munetaka
  • Mukai, Toshifumi
  • Yoshikawa, Makoto
  • Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro