Ota et al. (2019) Tourmaline in a Mesoarchean pelagic hydrothermal system: Implications for the habitat of early life, Precambrian Research, 334, doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2019.105475. < 20191212092751-166561 > pub

Map on Earth or stone. Places and analyses are shown.

  • abstract:

    The RNA World hypothesis requires the synthesis of RNA to allow the emergence of life on Earth. Hydrothermal systems have been proposed as potential candidates for constructing complex biomolecules. However, in order to successfully form RNA, it is necessary to stabilize ribose, a RNA carbohydrate component. Borate has been found to stabilize ribose. Therefore, boron rich hydrothermal systems are important environments concerning the origin of life on Earth.
    The 3.2-Ga Dixon Island Formation of the West Pilbara Superterrane, Western Australia, is a volcano-sedimentary sequence. The Formation represents a Mesoarchean pelagic hydrothermal system, which formed adjacent to an immature island arc. Fine-grained tourmaline, in addition to biogenic carbonaceous matter and spherulitic and tubular bacteriomorphs, are found in black chert. A boron-rich environment was responsible for the formation of these deposits. To explore the implications of such a boron enriched environment on microbial activity, modes of occurrence and chemical compositions of the tourmaline were examined.
    The tourmaline is schorl or dravite of the alkali tourmaline group and the boron isotope compositions range in δ11B from − 7.3 to + 2.6‰ . The tourmaline occurs in microcrystalline quartz matrix of black chert veins that cross cut a volcanic unit and also in a bedded black chert, which overlays the volcanic unit. The volcanic unit contains highly altered zones with hydrothermal veins. The associated lithologic and stratigraphic features suggest that the black chert veins were the conduits for upward moving hydrothermal fluids, which reached the sea floor. Subsequently, the volcanic unit was covered by organic matter-rich cherty sediments that in part were fed, and/or altered, by the hydrothermal fluids.
    These results suggest that the origin of boron enrichment to form Dixon Island tourmaline is not the associated sedimentary mineral assemblage, which includes diagenetic clay, low-grade metamorphic mica, and organic matter. Instead, the tourmaline was directly precipitated from hydrothermal fluid, enriched in boron. Furthermore, the hydrothermal fluids had already concentrated the boron, in the Mesoarchean pelagic system, prior to the apex of organic matter production and microbial activity. Our findings support a hypothesis that the boron-enriched hydrothermal environment aided the survival and evolution of early life.

  • doi: 10.1016/j.precamres.2019.105475
  • modified at 1 h ago
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(a) SEM-EDS on JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS
(b) calculation based on the ideal chemical formula on JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS
(c) SIMS on SIMS Cameca ims-5f
1: 7718-20_M01-02_core 2: 7718-20_M01-89_rim 3: 7718-20_M05-05_core 4: 7718-20_M05-06_core 5: 7718-20_M08-09_core 6: 7718-20_M08-107_rim 7: 7718-20_M09-12_core 8: 7718-20_M09-109_rim 9: 7718-20_M10-14_core 10: 7718-20_M10-118_rim 11: 7718-20_M11-124_core 12: 7718-20_M14-18_core 13: 7718-20_M14-134_rim 14: 7718-20_M16-139_core 15: 5814-09_MM1-20_core 16: 5814-09_MM2-23_core 17: 5814-09_MM3-27_core 18: 5814-09_M03-68_core 19: 5814-09_MM4-28_core 20: 5814-09_MM5-30_core 21: 5814-09_MM6-31_core 22: 5814-09_MM7-33_core 23: 5814-09_MM8-36_core 24: 1007-01_M03-154_at tour rim 25: 1007-01_M03-156_at tour rim 26: 1007-01_M04-167_at tour rim 27: 1007-01_M04-168_at tour rim 28: 1007-01_M06-187_at tour rim 29: 1007-01_M06-188_at tour rim 30: 3815-02_M01-01_rim 31: 3815-02_M05-01_core 32: 3815-02_M19-01_core 33: 3815-02_M35-01_core 34: 3815-02_M35-02_rim 35: 3815-02_M36-01_core 36: 3818-03_M02-12_at tour rim 37: 3818-03_M06-03_at tour rim 38: 3818-03_M06-04_at tour rim 39: 3818-03_M08-28_at tour rim 40: 3818-03_M08-29_at tour rim 41: 3818-03_M14-21_at tour rim 42: 7716-54_M01-12_core 43: 7716-54_M01-39_core 44: 7716-54_M02-23_at tour rim 45: 7716-54_M03-34_at tour rim 46: 7716-54_M04-45_at tour rim 47: 7716-54_M05-57_at tour rim 48: 7716-54_M06-41_core 49: 7716-54_M06-65_at tour rim 50: 7716-54_M07-74_at tour rim 51: 7716-54_M09-44_core 52: 7716-54_M09-83_at tour rim 53: 7716-54_MM1-46_core 54: 7716-54_MM2-50_core 55: 7716-54_MM3-52_core 56: 7716-54_MM4-55_core


(a) SEM-EDS on JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS
(b) calculation based on the ideal chemical formula on JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS
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(a) SEM-EDS on JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS
(b) calculation based on the ideal chemical formula on JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS
(c) SIMS on SIMS Cameca ims-5f
5814 1%20dxbw%20lam bl ch thumb 5814-1 < 20111017092154-808-499 >pub
  • IGSN: IEDRM011O
  • place: S20°37′51.1″, E117°3′22.5″ more
  • classification: sedimentary
  • physical-form: aliquot
  • quantity (g): 7.03
  • description: Dixon Island Formation; Black chert Member; Black chert; lbc, Sampled from DX-Bw
  • modified at 2019-12-13
5814 9%20bc%20type2 thumb 5814-9 < 20111018103441-590-043 >pub
  • IGSN: IEDRM011P
  • place: S20°37′51.1″, E117°3′22.5″ more
  • classification: sedimentary
  • physical-form: aliquot
  • quantity (g): 53.24
  • description: Dixon Island Formation; Komatiite-Rhyolite tuff member; Altered greenish volcanics
  • modified at 2019-12-13
3815 2 thumb 3815-2 < 20111018094416-660-672 >pub
  • IGSN: IEDRM011K
  • place: S20°37′51.1″, E117°3′22.5″ more
  • classification: sedimentary
  • physical-form: aliquot
  • quantity (g): 72.39
  • description: Dixon Island Formation; Komatiite-Rhyolite tuff member; Altered greenish volcanics
  • modified at 2019-12-13
3815 21 thumb 3815-21 < 20111018094419-737-948 >pub
  • IGSN: IEDRM011L
  • place: S20°37′51.1″, E117°3′22.5″ more
  • classification: sedimentary
  • physical-form: aliquot
  • quantity (g): 202.69
  • description: Dixon Island Formation; Black chert Member; Black chert
  • modified at 2019-12-13
7716 54 thumb 7716-54 DXF < 20130926120314-878903 >pub
  • classification: sedimentary
  • physical-form: thin section
  • status: (unknown)
  • description: Dixon Island Formation; Komatiite-Rhyolite tuff member; Altered greenish volcanics
  • modified at 2019-12-12
3818 03 thumb 3818-03 < 20111018094426-055-148 >pub
  • IGSN: IEDRM011Q
  • place: S20°37′51.1″, E117°3′22.5″ more
  • classification: sedimentary
  • physical-form: aliquot
  • quantity (g): 3.17
  • description: Dixon Island Formation; Black chert Member; Black chert
  • modified at 2019-12-13
name box-type global-id
binder of Tourmaline in a Mesoarchean pelagic hydrothermal system: Implications for the habitat of early life pub container 20191212092253-937724
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7716-54_T02-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150248-894682
7716-54_T03-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150248-778579
7716-54_T04-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150248-957130
7716-54_T05-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150248-049808
7716-54_T06-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150248-132588
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7718-20_M08-107_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20191212150600-259267
7716-54_M09-44_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 9 20191212150613-063960
7716-54_M07-74_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 9 20191212150612-341282
7716-54_M03-34_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 9 20191212150611-123336
7716-54_M02-23_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 11 20191212150611-433883
7716-54_M01-39_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 9 20191212150611-987427
3818-03_M08-29_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 10 20191212150610-113408
3818-03_M06-03_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 10 20191212150609-303077
7716-54_MM1-46_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212150613-375052
7716-54_M09-83_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212150613-177880
7716-54_M06-65_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 11 20191212150612-040696
3818-03_M14-21_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212150610-613236
3818-03_M08-28_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 9 20191212150610-105914
3815-0_M35-02_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212150608-795912
3815-0_M05-01_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 10 20191212150607-304325
3815-0_M01-01_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 9 20191212150607-633822
1007-01_M04-168_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212150606-216905
5814-09_MM8-36_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20191212150605-634856
5814-09_MM7-33_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20191212150605-434040
5814-09_MM6-31_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20191212150604-640224
7718-20_M10-14_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212150601-451743
7718-20_M01-02_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 9 20191212150559-117011
7716-54_MM4-55_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212150614-883584
7716-54_MM3-52_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 9 20191212150614-266557
7716-54_MM2-50_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212150613-441396
7716-54_M06-41_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 9 20191212150612-286922
7716-54_M05-57_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212150612-852031
7716-54_M04-45_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 9 20191212150611-071008
7716-54_M01-12_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 9 20191212150610-456942
3818-03_M06-04_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 11 20191212150609-549940
1007-01_M06-188_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20191212150607-848843
5814-09_M03-68_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212150603-052221
5814-09_MM3-27_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212150603-772631
5814-09_MM2-23_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212150602-649233
7718-20_M16-139_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212150602-726678
7718-20_M14-134_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 9 20191212150602-701723
7718-20_M14-18_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 6 20191212150601-732869
7718-20_M11-124_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 9 20191212150601-272918
7718-20_M10-118_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212150601-626703
7718-20_M09-12_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20191212150600-213330
7718-20_M08-09_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212150600-989871
7718-20_M01-89_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212150559-455232
7718-20_M09-109_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 9 20191212150600-669879
5814-09_MM1-20_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 6 20191212150602-407207
5814-09_MM4-28_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20191212150603-625297
5814-09_MM5-30_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212150604-603334
1007-01_M03-154_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 9 20191212150605-985154
1007-01_M03-156_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 9 20191212150605-083789
1007-01_M04-167_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212150606-936807
1007-01_M06-187_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212150607-702713
3815-0_M19-01_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 9 20191212150608-588591
3815-0_M35-01_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 11 20191212150608-266433
3815-0_M36-01_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212150609-252157
3818-03_M02-12_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 9 20191212150609-620147
7718-20_M05-05_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20191212150559-538802
7718-20_M05-06_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20191212150559-283524
7718-20_M01-02_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151839-985117
7718-20_M01-89_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151839-720714
7718-20_M05-05_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151840-092706
7718-20_M05-06_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151840-895419
7718-20_M08-09_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151840-513402
7718-20_M08-107_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151840-682935
7718-20_M09-12_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151840-936261
7718-20_M09-109_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151840-904042
7718-20_M10-14_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151840-680442
7718-20_M10-118_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151840-786931
7718-20_M11-124_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151840-120625
7718-20_M14-18_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151840-127630
7718-20_M14-134_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151840-013419
7718-20_M16-139_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151840-156156
5814-09_MM1-20_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151840-840475
5814-09_MM2-23_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151840-118478
5814-09_MM3-27_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151840-937543
5814-09_M03-68_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151840-332229
5814-09_MM4-28_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151840-759155
5814-09_MM5-30_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151840-382611
5814-09_MM6-31_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151841-401585
5814-09_MM7-33_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151841-070406
5814-09_MM8-36_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151841-025831
1007-01_M03-154_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151841-231377
1007-01_M03-156_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151841-485335
1007-01_M04-167_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151841-495199
1007-01_M04-168_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151841-269361
1007-01_M06-187_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151841-599052
1007-01_M06-188_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151841-540957
3815-0_M01-01_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151841-182798
3815-0_M05-01_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151841-999327
3815-0_M19-01_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151841-941026
3815-0_M35-01_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151841-420412
3815-0_M35-02_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151841-963083
3815-0_M36-01_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151841-331038
3818-03_M02-12_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151841-074406
3818-03_M06-03_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151841-833687
3818-03_M06-04_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151841-786115
3818-03_M08-28_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151841-599972
3818-03_M08-29_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151841-716799
3818-03_M14-21_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151841-539341
7716-54_M01-12_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151842-260540
7716-54_M01-39_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151842-308915
7716-54_M02-23_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151842-279193
7716-54_M03-34_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151842-393091
7716-54_M04-45_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151842-924219
7716-54_M05-57_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151842-774392
7716-54_M06-41_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151842-752974
7716-54_M06-65_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151842-797218
7716-54_M07-74_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151842-625140
7716-54_M09-44_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151842-760466
7716-54_M09-83_at tour rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151842-251654
7716-54_MM1-46_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151842-523129
7716-54_MM2-50_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151842-771976
7716-54_MM3-52_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151842-065839
7716-54_MM4-55_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 1 20200323151842-423598
5813-18_T01-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141420-672064
5813-18_T01-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 6 20191212141302-598190
5813-18_T01-2_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-547650
5813-18_T01-2_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20191212141302-130001
5813-18_T02-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-711441
5813-18_T02-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212141303-210739
5813-18_T02-2_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-010687
5813-18_T02-2_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 9 20191212141303-726252
5813-18_T03-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-395117
5813-18_T03-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20191212141303-118214
5813-18_T04-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-815640
5813-18_T04-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20191212141303-550177
5813-18_T04-2_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-300785
5813-18_T04-2_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212141303-051110
5813-18_T05-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-965835
5813-18_T05-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20191212141304-766756
5813-18_T10-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-124100
5813-18_T10-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 9 20191212141304-900716
5813-18_T11-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-143171
5813-18_T11-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212141304-547863
5813-18_T11-2_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-968109
5813-18_T11-2_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212141304-813586
5813-18_T11-3_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-979357
5813-18_T11-3_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212141305-929880
5813-18_T11-4_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-350372
5813-18_T11-4_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20191212141305-168144
5813-18_T11-5_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-319964
5813-18_T11-5_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212141305-172213
5813-18_T12-1_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-875088
5813-18_T12-1_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20191212141305-408818
5813-18_T13-1_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-656805
5813-18_T13-1_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212141305-616533
5813-18_T14-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-354706
5813-18_T14-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212141306-845448
5813-18_T15-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-289775
5813-18_T15-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 9 20191212141306-383207
5813-18_T22-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-594279
5813-18_T22-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20191212141306-650882
5813-18_T22-2_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-418172
5813-18_T22-2_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 6 20191212141306-909527
5813-18_T23-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-697925
5813-18_T23-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212141307-302089
5813-18_T24-1_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-462471
5813-18_T24-1_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212141307-187472
7718-20_T06-1_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-263161
7718-20_T06-1_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 9 20191212141307-262490
7718-20_T07-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-145690
7718-20_T07-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212141307-316595
7718-20_T10-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-306588
7718-20_T10-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20191212141308-220941
7718-20_T11-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-888961
7718-20_T11-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20191212141308-173821
7718-20_T13-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-837309
7718-20_T13-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20191212141308-017850
7718-20_T16-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-104919
7718-20_T16-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20191212141308-097458
5814-1_T01-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-322849
5814-1_T01-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20191212141308-840633
5814-1_T03-2_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-866695
5814-1_T03-2_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212141308-174814
5814-1_T04-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-981637
5814-1_T04-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212141309-104723
5814-1_T06-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-768756
5814-1_T06-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 10 20191212141309-563546
5814-1_T07-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-563652
5814-1_T07-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 6 20191212141309-056956
5814-1_T09-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-859075
5814-1_T09-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212141309-382876
5814-1_T10-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-291495
5814-1_T10-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212141310-192336
5814-1_T12-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-370325
5814-1_T12-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20191212141310-572512
5814-9_T01-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-464848
5814-9_T01-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212141310-776259
5814-9_T02-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-055049
5814-9_T02-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212141310-916672
5814-9_T05-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-457861
5814-9_T05-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 9 20191212141311-470158
5814-9_T08-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-096008
5814-9_T08-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212141311-625243
5814-9_T10-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-108877
5814-9_T10-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212141311-454494
5814-9_T11-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-641949
5814-9_T11-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20191212141311-939638
5814-9_T12-1_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-269357
5814-9_T12-1_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 9 20191212141311-589059
1009-17_T02-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-903905
1009-17_T02-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212141312-146691
1009-17_T02-2_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-998852
1009-17_T02-2_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 6 20191212141312-636035
1009-17_T10-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-087306
1009-17_T10-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 8 20191212141312-059895
1009-17_T04-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-782157
1009-17_T04-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 9 20191212141312-680654
1009-17_T07-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-750997
1009-17_T07-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 10 20191212141312-288319
1009-17_T09-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-726594
1009-17_T09-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20191212141313-334486
1009-17_T18-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-079240
1009-17_T18-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 6 20191212141313-862689
1009-17_T9-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-211612
1009-17_T9-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 5 20191212141313-495867
1009-17_T25-2_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-814224
1009-17_T25-2_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 6 20191212141313-500349
1009-17_T25-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-690980
1009-17_T25-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 6 20191212141313-641208
1009-17_T25-3_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-940312
1009-17_T25-3_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 6 20191212141313-202460
1009-17_T26-1_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-487793
1009-17_T26-1_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 6 20191212141314-710011
1009-17_T30-1_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-494810
1009-17_T30-1_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 7 20191212141314-068487
5813-18_T01-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150240-338842
5813-18_T01-2_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150240-667035
5813-18_T02-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150240-750022
5813-18_T02-2_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150240-075942
5813-18_T03-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150240-235056
5813-18_T04-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150240-531824
5813-18_T04-2_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150240-182369
5813-18_T05-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150240-531578
5813-18_T10-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150240-405221
5813-18_T11-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150241-044235
5813-18_T11-2_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150241-296781
5813-18_T11-3_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150241-079599
5813-18_T11-4_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150241-499397
5813-18_T11-5_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150241-913208
5813-18_T12-1_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150241-111588
5813-18_T13-1_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150241-495233
5813-18_T14-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150241-276136
5813-18_T15-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150241-218687
5813-18_T22-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150241-802293
5813-18_T22-2_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150241-038216
5813-18_T23-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150241-590147
5813-18_T24-1_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150242-026817
7718-20_T06-1_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150242-002263
7718-20_T07-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150242-711437
7718-20_T10-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150242-723338
7718-20_T11-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150242-443010
7718-20_T13-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150242-120685
7718-20_T16-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150242-446844
5814-1_T01-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150242-347937
5814-1_T03-2_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150242-509747
5814-1_T04-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150242-306340
5814-1_T06-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150242-402548
5814-1_T07-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150242-959509
5814-1_T09-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150243-958345
5814-1_T10-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150243-336732
5814-1_T12-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150243-947886
5814-9_T01-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150243-646856
5814-9_T02-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150243-560231
5814-9_T05-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150243-556985
5814-9_T08-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150243-444533
5814-9_T10-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150243-846618
5814-9_T11-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150243-053065
5814-9_T12-1_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150243-128725
1009-17_T02-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150243-476736
1009-17_T02-2_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150243-837829
1009-17_T10-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150243-561663
1009-17_T04-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150244-917184
1009-17_T07-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150244-672563
1009-17_T09-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150244-071839
1009-17_T18-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150244-165900
1009-17_T19-1_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150244-300748
1009-17_T25-2_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150244-302156
1009-17_T25-1_core pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150244-608048
1009-17_T25-3_skeletal pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150244-652208
1009-17_T26-1_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150244-929951
1009-17_T30-1_rim pub JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS 2 20200323150244-840787
name spots global-id
caption ID rowname stone
Table 1-2. Chemical compositions of tourmaline.Elemental abundances are normalized to a total of 100 cg/g pub 20191212121958-218300 major (Ota et al., 2019) 55
Table 2. Chemical compositions of mica. With the exception of boron, abundances of elements are normalized to a total of 100cg/g pub 20191212145542-638525 major-mica (Ota et al., 2019) 56
Table 1-1. Chemical compositions of tourmaline.Elemental abundances are normalized to a total of 100 cg/g pub 20191212120738-799865 major (Ota et al., 2019) 56
manual
  • name
  • Ota, Tsutomu
  • Aihara, Yuhei
  • Kiyokawa, Shoichi
  • Tanaka, Ryoji
  • Nakamura, Eizo